Origin of Arabic Numerals



The wonder of the unique Arabic numerals is so blunted by common use we forget sometimes that their sudden disappearance might cause our civilization to grind to a halt with catastrophic consequences. The invention of the system was as a great a revolution as the invention of writing, and to both the transition from barbarism to civilisation is attributed.

Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 16, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

The two untold stories of the universal numeral system (1)

In the Origin of Arabic Numerals – A natural history of numbers readers were promised two stories that have never been told in a book before: the first is the true origin of the Arabic numeral system and its amazing numerals; the second is the story of the actors that staged the astonishingly act of […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 15, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

How to prove the Arabian origination of the Arabic numeral system in 5 illustrations (3)

How to prove the Arabian origination of the Arabic numeral system in 5 illustrations.

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 14, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

BIBLIOGRAPHY (5)

A. F. L. Beeston, Nemara and Faw, Bulletin Of the School Of Oriental and African Studies, (1979), Volume 42, pp. 1-6. A. I. Ghabban, Naqsh Zuhayr: Aqdam Naqsh Islāmī, (Arabia, 2003), Volume I. Abdul Qadir al-Halaq al-Halabi, Fadhl al-Khitab fi Ilm al-Hisab. Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, Kitab Sobh al-’A‘sha, (Cairo, 1914). Abu al-Hassan Ahmad ibn […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 13, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Numbers of Sheikh Abbas (7)

Readers of the Arabian Nights would not have missed the numerous occurrences of the word khan, usually in association with traders. Some of the most popular characters of those tales, such as Sindbad (or Sinbad for short), are merchants, and many of the tales are about adventurous traders crisscrossing trade routes in search of promising […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 12, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 12, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Talking Numbers: What’s in a name?

The numeric argument sometimes goes like this: If Arabs and their Muslim partners didn’t invent Arabic numerals and the cipher system then they couldn’t have developed mathematics, astronomy, geometry and the other sciences and arts. Another argument goes like this: Why is it so important to call numerals “Arabic” or “European” or “Sindhi” or “Indian” […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 12, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

The Family of the Eastern Arabic Numerals

Let’s begin by assuring the reader that this chart is not a hoax. This is the origin of the Eastern (Arabic) numerals – hand and finger formations. There was no pen at the time and no paper. Etymological analysis of number words indicate that numerals 1-5 were probably developed in the Stone age. Hundreds, but […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 11, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Untold stories of the numeral system

Speech is said to be one of the main discoveries that changed history. Writing is another, whether involving numeral or alphabetical shapes, and both were essential tools for the creation of civilisations and the recording of history. The reader of the pages of this website will find many extracts from the Origin of the Arabic […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 10, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Ciphering of Europe (4)

There are two numeric alphabets in use today with certain variations: The eastern numerals used in the Arab world and many other countries outside it, and the western numerals used in some North African Arab states, Europe, the USA and many other countries. The western numerals are a relatively new introduction most probably from Arab […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 9, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

NumeralAlphas (6)

The question as to which came first, the numerals or the letters, was answered convincingly a century ago with the conclusion that the “use of visible signs to represent numbers and aid reckoning is not only older than writing, but older than the development of numerical language on the denary (decimal) system.”[1] Two additional conclusions […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 8, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Script Orientation (8)

Islam differs from Christianity in many aspects, extending to social and learning habits. Washing five times before prayer is mandatory in most cases, and it must be done in a special order. Unless afflicted by an impediment, eating has to be done with the right hand. Shaking hands with people is always performed with the […]

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 7, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Additional Coverage, Illustrations and Videos (10)

                                           

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Adel Bishtawi
Adel Bishtawi
March 1, 2015 - Arabic Numerals

Family of the Western Arabic Numerals

  Additional info and charts are contained in a pdf file which can be distributed freely provided the name of the book Origin of Arabic Numerals – a natural history of numbers and the author Adel S. Bishtawi are clearly mentioned Click Here for the PDF File Suggested research: Origin of Arabic Numerals: A key […]

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